There are important differences between the vast array of extracts: CBD isolate, broad spectrum, and full-spectrum product formulations. We discuss. THC Removal – Remove THC from CBD | B/R Instrument Blog | Industry Leader in Laboratory Distillation Equipment British pharmaceutical company GW Pharmaceuticals recently received FDA approval of their oral solution Epidolex for treating seizures associated with
Extraction Explained: Debunking Myths & Clarifying Terminology
The extracts and concentrates industry is constantly evolving and developing new processes and products to satisfy every type of cannabis and hemp consumer. Along with it, new terminology has emerged to capture the differences in the various complex extraction processes. Terms such as CBD isolate, broad spectrum, and full spectrum have all made their way into the vernacular of the extraction industry, and are often times used incorrectly or interchangeably.
Understanding the foundations of these terms is important for differentiating the advantages and disadvantages of the various extraction methods and product types. There are important differences between the vast array of extracts: CBD isolate, broad spectrum, and full-spectrum product formulations, and using the correct verbiage is vital for producers and consumers alike.
Hemp Oil vs. Hemp Seed Oil vs. CBD Oil: The Where and How of Hemp Extraction
Hemp extraction is the most popular form of CBD extraction for a variety of reasons; it has rich CBD content, low THC levels, and the added benefit of coming from a less-aggressively regulated source. Every strain of cannabis and hemp has its own unique chemical profile, meaning that each product will contain different amounts of cannabinoids and terpenes that were purposely bred by cannabis farmers.
Three of the more commonly confused and conflated terms in hemp extraction are hemp seed oil, hemp oil, and CBD oil. Let’s explore the key differences:
Where Does Hemp Seed Oil Come From?
Hemp seed oil is oil extracted from the hemp seed specifically, which contains no CBD. While it may have some health benefits, including diet and skin care, any benefit derived from CBD will not be present in hemp seed oil. You may find that extractors cut their extract with this oil to help dilute the extract, it will give the tincture a more earthy flavor but as stated does not add any additional CBD to the mixture.
Where Does Hemp Oil Come From?
Hemp oil is extracted from almost every part of the hemp plant other than the seed, including the flowers, stems, and leaves. All of these parts of the plant contain CBD, so any hemp oil containing CBD can also be called CBD oil. Hemp oil extracted from hemp flowers contain the highest level of cannabinoids and terpenes, which are concentrated on resinous trichome glands on hemp flowers.
Where Does CBD Oil Come From?
Hemp oil, or CBD oil extracted from hemp plants, is different than cannabis extract, but both can be called CBD oil. The main difference is that while CBD can be extracted from cannabis plants, it can also extract trace THC along with it. Typically, any residual THC in CBD oil is intentional, as cannabis consumers demand more CBD presence in their extracts.
How Are Hemp Oil and CBD Oil Extracted?
Just as important as where the oil is extracted is how it is extracted, and there are multiple ways to target chemical compounds found in cannabis. Hemp producers employ a variety of extraction methods, including alcohol, supercritical CO2, and butane extraction to remove the therapeutic compounds found in hemp plants. Each method caters to a varying yield, quality, and purity of hemp-derived CBD.
While each of these extraction methods have their place, BHO extraction is one of the most widely used methods with cannabis and is now moving to dominate the hemp market with ts ability to extract the full representation of the plant in concentrated form. This is called full-spectrum extraction.
To learn more about BHO extraction methods, check out our post on BHO extraction here.
Extraction Outcomes: CBD Isolate, Broad Spectrum, and Full Spectrum
Extraction methods matter because different extraction methods will reap different outcomes in terms of retaining the hemp plant’s original compounds. For example, if the goal is to retain valuable terpenes and a full complement of cannabinoids through the extraction process, butane extraction is the best option because CO2 can lose terpenes and cannabinoids at the beginning of the extraction process, while ethanol can lose terpenes at the end. Super chilled Butane or Propane extraction won’t lose those valuable and pertinent hemp compounds.
These extraction outcomes also come with their own set of terminology: isolate, broad-spectrum, and full-spectrum extracts.
What Is CBD Isolate?
One extraction method is to remove every compound except for CBD, thereby producing an isolate product that often resembles a white powdery substance. CBD isolate, also known as pure CBD, is an odorless and tasteless crystal or powder that contains 99+ percent CBD.
How Is CBD Isolate Made?
CBD isolate is accomplished using chromatography. This process takes out all of the terpenes, which are responsible for scent, flavor, and other differentiators. Additionally, chromatography separates out the unwanted cannabinoids, such as the most commonly known psychoactive one — THC. Last, but not least, this process removes all plant matter.
Why CBD Isolate?
Many people prefer CBD isolate due to its neutral flavor and taste, which makes it easy to add to food, drinks, and topicals. Extraction methods remove every other compound including THC. Individuals who don’t want to risk consuming THC or failing a drug test will often look for CBD isolates.
Can CBD Isolate Be Full Spectrum?
Even if terpenes are re-introduced into a CBD isolate, that doesn’t make it a full- or broad-spectrum product. Some studies have shown that CBD isolates aren’t as effective in higher doses as full-spectrum products that contain the original array of compounds. Researchers believe the additional terpenes, cannabinoids, and flavonoids amplify the positive effects of CBD and mitigate any side effects. This is what is referred to as the entourage effect.
What Is Broad Spectrum?
Broad-spectrum CBD products fall somewhere between CBD isolates and full-spectrum extracts. Essentially, broad-spectrum contains much of the hemp’s cannabinoids and terpenes, minus the THC.
State-of-the-art chromatography processes remove all of the THC from a full-spectrum extract. This method of extraction keeps the hemp strain’s intended compounds. Adding cannabinoids and terpenes back into a CBD isolate would not be considered broad or full-spectrum.
What Is Full Spectrum?
Full-spectrum extraction preserves CBD from hemp, along with other common cannabinoids, terpenes, flavonoids, and fatty acids. Full-spectrum products contain almost all of the naturally occurring compounds found in hemp. Full-spectrum CBD features all of the hemp’s chemical compounds, including other cannabinoids such as cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromevarinic acid (CBVA), cannabicyclol (CBL), and THC (among others). Full-spectrum products contain only a trace amount of THC — typically less than 3 percent concentration.
Full-spectrum oil retains its complementary and medically applicable compounds. Researchers have found that the cannabis plant’s minor cannabinoids have therapeutic value, and that terpenes, flavonoids, and fatty acids support the entire endocannabinoid system.
One study published by the Lautenberg Center for Immunology and Cancer Research compared the effects of a CBD isolate and full-spectrum extract. It found that CBD isolate had a bell-shaped response curve where it peaked at a medium dose and tapered off at higher and lower doses. Responsiveness to the full-spectrum solution, however, “continued to increase as higher doses were administered.” While CBD was effective at reducing inflammation and pain at a certain dose, the entire palette of cannabinoids is needed to provide increasingly higher dosages. This is a great explanation of the “entourage effect.”
The synergistic, entourage effect of full-spectrum extracts is what makes it the most popular type in the cannabis and hemp field. Unfortunately, this can also lead to false claims made by producers that their product is “full spectrum” when, in fact, it is not. This is particularly prevalent in the CBD hemp oil industry, where various methods are used which do not in reality yield the full-spectrum results they claim.
Despite the ongoing claims made by CO2 and other extract processors, BHO and light hydrocarbon extraction is the only method for obtaining true full-spectrum outcomes.
There is a lack of clarity surrounding the most prevalent terminology in cannabis extraction. As light hydrocarbon (BHO) extractors, we believe in the importance of understanding what types of extracts are best for a given purpose, and hope this article has served as a helpful guide in building that understanding.
THC Removal – Remove THC from CBD
Consumers are attracted to the purported health benefits of CBD but understand that THC naturally occurs in hemp along with other minor cannabinoids. They do not want to consume THC because they don’t want the “high” the comes along with THC or they don’t want to possibly test positive for THC in a work drug screening. The good news is that THC can be separated from CBD so that it can be consumed without concern for unwanted THC.
There are several ways to remove THC from CBD oil, CBD extracts and CBD distillate. The products can be THC Free (T Free) or low THC (0.3% or lower) which does not produce a “high”.
Broad Spectrum CBD
Broad spectrum products contain all of the cannabinoids with little THC (less than 0.3%/wt). This should not to be confused with THC Free or T-Free oil which contains no THC.
Chromatographic methods such as flash chromatography and CPC use solvents and a stationary phase to fractionate the cannabinoids from one another. In these processes, the THC is isolated and removed from the other cannabinoids. But, there is the unwanted side effect of losing some or all of the minor cannabinoids and CBD in the THC fraction.
In addition to using large volumes of solvents, chromatographic methods remove THC at a fairly slow rate and some CBD is lost in the process. At the same time, it requires an experienced operator to be available at all times during operation.
SCB-15 THC Remediation System
SCB-15 – Solvent Free THC Remediation System
Another technique for removing THC from full spectrum CBD is the SBC solvent free remediation system. This THC removal process is solvent free. It uses automation to maintain the optimum vacuum, temperature, and other parameters to remove THC (and some CBD) from the CBD oil. An operator occasionally monitors the THC level by Near Infrared or HPLC. Up to 100 liters of CBD or CBG oil can be remediated in 12-24 hours.
Pure CBD (also called isolate) can be produced by crystallizing CBD oil/extract/distillate. CBD oil is mixed with pentane and cooled until the CBD crystallizes (crashes out). Crystallized CBD is filtered, rinsed, and dried. Purities of 99+% are possible. Re-crystallization can increase the purity even higher. All THC is removed along with minor cannabinoids.
CBD Crystals or “Isolate”
Full spectrum CBD
The “entourage effect” is the name given to the synergistic benefits of cannabinoids and terpenes working together in your body. It has been the subject of study for many years, however we are still only beginning to understand some of the possibilities. The entourage effect can produce many different results depending on the combinations.
Full spectrum is a term that applies to extracts or oils that contain all of the naturally occurring cannabinoids from the plant. For hemp products this often includes more than 0.3% THC. In order to stay legally compliant, something must remove the THC.
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CBD Oil: A How-To Guide for At-Home Extractions
British pharmaceutical company GW Pharmaceuticals recently received FDA approval of their oral solution Epidolex for treating seizures associated with Tuberous Sclerosis, adding another condition to the list of health issues that their CBD oil solution can successfully and safely treat. Individual users, however, claim that cannabis oil helps reduce pain and anxiety, as well as other issues that still await clinical confirmation.
Apart from its medicinal use, CBD oil can also be used to cook various dishes, sauces, dressings, and gummies. The wave of legalization that has swept North America recently also allowed entrepreneurs to start-up businesses and sell oil and other products made via CBD extraction to a wide array of consumers, not only those with medicinal needs.
If you’re looking for a way to make your own oil, however, this article is here to show you how to extract CBD from a cannabis plant at home.
Distinct types of CBD oil
Depending on the strain you use and the preparation method, there are three different types of CBD oil:
- Full Spectrum
- Broad Spectrum
- CBD Isolate
Each of these three types of products provides a separate set of compounds and effects. It’s very important to know what you’re introducing into your system, especially when it comes to potentially psychoactive substances.
Full Spectrum CBD oil contains more than just CBD; there’s a wide array of other cannabinoids, including THC, terpenes, and essential oils. This type of CBD oil allows the use of both leaves and flowers to assure the presence of every compound; however, leaves hold a high concentration of chlorophyll, which gives the oil a dark color and a somewhat bad taste.
Broad Spectrum CBD oil gives you the full set of substances, as well, however, there is no THC, which means you won’t get high or show positive on a drug test if you consume the oil on a regular basis.
CBD Isolate is the purest form of CBD oil extracted from nothing but the plant flower. If you’re opting for this type of oil, you should use hemp flower for this purpose. Hemp has been legal in the U.S. since the passage of the 2018 Farm Bill.
Since the extraction of Full Spectrum CBD oil is the way to obtain the most of the plant’s benefits to our wellbeing, we’ll go through to examine this method, not only because buying complex equipment for marijuana processing might get you in trouble, but also because it’s the simplest process and easy to implement at home. For those of you who would like to know other methods of marijuana oil extraction, we’ll also mention some alternatives at the end.
Extracting CBD oil from a flower
Before you start the process, it’s of paramount importance to know that Ethanol or Ethyl Alcohol is a highly flammable substance so make sure you take every precaution to keep yourself and your environment safe from fire hazard. That being said, let’s get on with the preparation process.
What do you need?
Cannabis flowers – make sure you trim down every leaf and leave nothing but the flower for the extraction process. Break larger buds into smaller pieces to make it easier for processing or even better, grind the flower so that the herb could absorb the alcohol better.
Ethanol – Best use 95% Food-Grade Ethyl alcohol.
Filtering equipment – Best use paper filters or fold gauze into several layers.
Fireproof bowl – the size of the bowl depends on how much material you have prepared.
Large glass jar – This is where you’ll mix alcohol and weed.
To activate cannabinoids, we must place the ground herb into an oven for about 45 minutes. Spread marijuana over a casserole dish or something similar and keep the oven heated at around 110 degrees Celsius. Depending on the granulation, it could take less than 45 minutes for the decarboxylation process, so pay attention not to burn your weed in the oven.
Mixing and filtering
Place your weed into the jar and pour alcohol over it until it covers the weed completely. Stir the mixture every 5 minutes several times and let the mix sit for an hour or two. You can’t let it sit for too long, so don’t worry if you leave it sitting longer than this.
Place the layered gauze or paper filter over the fireproof bowl and start pouring the solution. It’s not a bad idea to repeat the filtering process several times until you’re satisfied with the achieved purity of the filtered solution.
Removing the alcohol
Ethyl alcohol boils at 78 degrees Celsius which is the temperature you should set on your heating surface and slowly mix the solution within the fireproof bowl. Keep the bowl over the heat source until no alcohol vapor or bubbles is appearing on the surface of the heated liquid.
More oil extraction methods
There are numerous ways to extract oil, some even answer the question of how to extract THC from your product. As these require a bit more experience, we’ll only go through some of the most popular methods.
This is one of the newest ways to produce CBD oil and it offers the purest oil extract, called CBD Isolate, free of any additional compounds. It requires a CO2 machine because it relies on carbon dioxide as a solvent. The herb is being placed into a Co2 machine and kept under pressure. This process also includes the Winterization and Decarboxylation process. The first is used to separate CBD from wax and lipids that might be left, while Decarboxylation activates the CBD.
Similar to Ethanol extraction, the oil method requires the use of olive or coconut oil as a solvent. One major difference is that the herb is being mixed with water and dehydrated before it’s mixed with the oil and heated. This method is most commonly used by people who need to create CBD tinctures or topicals that can be applied directly to the affected area and deal with muscle pain.
We hope this article has helped you capture the basics of CBD oil extraction. We tried to cover the extraction process as comprehensively as possible so you wouldn’t have any setbacks while trying to make your extract at home. Also, we avoided the use of specialized chemistry equipment because, let’s face it, not too many people have a lab set up in the house. Enjoy your new knowledge and have fun making your CBD oil.
Tia is an editor and contributor for AskGrowers. She is passionate about traveling, yoga, and horse-riding, and at some point wants to see every corner of the Earth. She’s been working in the cannabis field for some time and is excited to continue and discover even more about this industry.