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cannabis sativa hemp seeds

Cannabis sativa hemp seeds

There is a mistaken belief that you can get high by eating hemp seeds. Indeed, hemp and marijuana belong to the same plant species (Cannabis Sativa L), but they are different strains. Hemp produces not only nutty, fatty, buttery tasting seeds, but also can it be refined into paper, textiles and clothing, biodegradable plastic (cutlery, cups, tableware), biofuel, and even construction material (hempcrete). Yes, you can build a house with it!

Still afraid?

The simplest way to eat hemp seeds is to enjoy them raw in smoothies, granola, porridge, yoghurt or sauces for some added crunchiness. You can also enrich your baked goods with hemp seeds. Hemp ‘milk’ is another way to easily incorporate the nutritious seeds into your diet, and the same goes for hemp flour. As the seeds are rich in fatty acids, cold pressed hemp seeds oil is an up-and-coming product.

Pleasant bean-like aroma

Hemp seeds are pure delight for nut aficionados. Nutty pyrazines and pyrroline, also found in coffee, dark chocolate, nut pralines, nuts, sprouted chickpea, and Parmigiano Reggiano, are responsible for the seed’s nutty flavor. Hemp seed is therefore a perfect ingredient for a fluffy mousse or a heavy brownie. You can even smell a resinous pine nut-like undertone. It is the effect of combination of the nutty molecules with woody, spicy / camphoreous, and green notes.

Cannabis sativa hemp seeds

The concentrations of Δ 9 -THC, Δ 9 -THCA, CBD, and CBDA, along with total Δ 9 -THC (i.e., Δ 9 -THC + Δ 9 -THCA) and total CBD (CBDA + CBD) from each brand of hemp seeds, using each of the four extraction procedures, are shown in Table 1 , and are plotted in Figure 2 . The discussion and interpretations henceforth are in the context of total Δ 9 -THC and total CBD.

Discussion: We discovered that Δ 9 -THC concentrations in these hemp seeds could be as high as 1250% of the legal limit, and the amount of phytocannabinoids depended on the extraction procedure employed, Soxhlet extraction being the most efficient across all three brands of seeds. Δ 9 -THC and CBD exhibited significant variations in their estimated concentrations even from the same brand, reflecting the inhomogeneous nature of seeds and variability due to the extraction method, but almost in all cases, Δ 9 -THC concentrations were higher than the legal limit. These quantities of total Δ 9 -THC may reach as high as 3.8 mg per gram of hemp seeds, if one were consuming a 30-g daily recommended amount of hemp seeds, and is a cause for concern for potential toxicity. It is not clear if these high quantities of Δ 9 -THC are due to contamination of the seeds, or any other reason.

Estimated Concentrations of Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol in the Hemp Seeds (in μg/g of Hemp Seeds)

Analysis

3 Multi-Organ Transplant Program, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

According to Health Canada’s Industrial Hemp Technical Manual, the current approved procedure of Δ 9 -THC quantification in hemp involves the sonication of 3 g of dried leaf powder in hexanes followed by analysis by gas chromatography. 11 There is no mention of testing procedures for any other parts of the hemp plant, including its seeds. Using a similar hexane-sonication procedure, quantification conducted by Ross et al., obtained Δ 9 -THC concentrations of 0–12 μg/g for fiber-type cannabis seeds. 7 In this study, ethanolic extraction using sonication exhibited significant variation from 17% to 92% of the maximum yield across the three brands of hemp seeds. This inconsistency could be attributed to the higher oil content within hemp seeds compared to the rest of plant. Due to hydrophobicity of the Δ 9 -THC molecule, it is expected to partition more strongly into the seed material, leading to the gross underestimation of Δ 9 -THC content by sonication.

Lakshmi P. Kotra

Sample injection volume was 10 μL, at a mobile phase flow rate of 0.6 mL/min for a total run time of 6 min. Two mobile phases, water/0.1% formic acid (phase A), and methanol/0.1% formic acid (phase B), were used and gradient conditions were used for elution: 0–4.5 min: 30%→0% phase A and 70%→100% phase B, 4.5→5 min: 100% phase B, and 5→6 min: 30% phase A and 70% phase B. Internal standard was benzophenone (10 μg/mL solution in MeOH), and each sample was spiked with 9.6 μL of internal standard before analysis. Each sample was analyzed in triplicate.

2 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.