Everything you need to know about the 6 stages of cannabis growth. From selecting seeds to determining plant sex. Marijuana Cultivation/Producing Seeds Sooner or later every grower is going to want to produce marijuana seeds. Developing a new stable strain is beyond the scope of this discussion and requires Have you ever heard of viviparity? This phenomenon, seemingly uncommon in plants, is actually more widespread than it appears, depending on the enviro
The Stages of Cannabis Growth
Cannabis growth is made up of a series of stages that plants undergo during their lifecycle. Each stage during the cannabis cultivation process requires its own unique demands, including different levels of light, water, and nutrients.
It can take anywhere from 4 to 8 months to grow a cannabis plant, this varies based on where you’re growing. If you have an indoor grow room, your plant has the ability to flower after only a few weeks!
The quality of your plant depends on your knowledge of the cannabis growth stages and the lifecycle of your plants.
Cannabis Growth Timeline
1. Germinating: 1-7 days
2. Seedling: 2-3 weeks
3. Vegetative: 2-8 weeks
4. Pre-Flowering: 1-2 weeks
5. Flowering: 6-8 weeks
1. Germinating Seeds
2. Seedling Stage
3. Vegetative Growth
How to tell if your plant is a male or female
Female: Two pistils (the pistil contains the reproductive parts of a flower) will be growing on the buds (flowers grow above these leaves, one cluster on each side).
Male: Small green sacs full of pollen will be seen on the node areas.
- If there is a high color ratio of white to red pistils your cannabis will provide a euphoric THC high.
- If the color ratio is more red to white, your cannabis will provide a calmer, CBD-stoned feeling.
- If you harvest once half the trichomes are opaque and the pistils haven’t turned brown, your cannabis will provide a balanced THC/CBD high.
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Marijuana Cultivation/Producing Seeds
Sooner or later every grower is going to want to produce marijuana seeds. Developing a new stable strain is beyond the scope of this discussion and requires the ability to grow hundreds or even thousands of breeding plants. However, just about any grower can manage to preserve some genetics by growing f2 seeds where they have crossed a male and female of the same strain, or can produce a simple cross which would be referred to as strain1xstrain2 for instance white widow crossed with ak-47 would be referred to as a WW x AK-47. You can produce some excellent seed and excellent marijuana this way.
To Feminise or not to Feminise Edit
There are numerous myths surrounding feminized seeds. Feminizing seeds are a bit more work than simply crossing two plants naturally. However it will save you a lot of time in the end. If you make fem seeds properly then there is no increased chance of hermaphrodites and all seeds will be female. This means no wasted time and effort growing males and it means that all your viable seeds produce useful plants. Since roughly half of normal seeds are male this effectively doubles the number of seeds you have.
Feminized seeds are bred to contain no male chromosomes, which will be able to produce the crop of resinous buds sought by most growers. For gardeners who require a quick and easy cultivation process, feminized seeds are the ideal choice. Some medicinal cannabis users may be deterred from growing their own supply because of the perceived difficulty of growing or of identifying the different genders and removing males early in the blooming period. Feminized seed-strains offer a simple solution to these issues, as there is no need to spend time in the first weeks of flowering checking for male plants.
Other times you will have no choice but to produce feminized seed because it will be a female plants genetics that you want to preserve and you won’t have any males. Perhaps you received these genetics via clone or didn’t keep males.
The new thing on the market for commercial Cannabis cultivation are auto-flowering feminized strains. By crossing of the cannabis ruderalis with Sativa and Indica strains many cultivators have created interesting hybrids which boast benefits from both sides of these families.
The first ‘auto-flowering cannabis seed’ which came on the market a few years ago was the Lowryder #1. This was a hybrid between a Cannabis ruderalis, a William’s Wonder and a Northern Lights #2. This strain was marketed by ‘The Joint Doctor’ and was honestly speaking not very impressive. The genetics of the ruderalis was still highly present which caused for a very low yield and little psychoactive effect. Not very attractive.
Auto-flowering cannabis and the easily distributed seed have opened a whole new market in the world of the online grow-shop, making it easy for home growers with shortage of space to grow rewarding cannabis plants in many different varieties. To grow plants indoors, a growing medium (e.g. soil or growing Potting soil, irrigation (water), fertilizer (nutrients), light and atmosphere need to be supplied to the plant.
Auto-flowers have been rising in popularity fast and there are now auto flower growers communities. These Web properties allow users to get information on how to grow these non photo-sensitive plants and what are the best practices when producing and germinating auto-flower seeds.
Selecting Suitable Parents Edit
There are a number of important characteristics when selecting parents. First are you making fem seeds? If you are then both parents will be female. This makes things easier. If not then the best you can do is select a male with characteristics in common with the females you hope to achieve from the seed.
Obviously potency, yield, and psychoactive effects are critical to the selection process. But some other important traits are size, odor, taste, resistance to mold and contaminants, early finishing and consistency.
Collecting and Storing Pollen Edit
In order to collect pollen you simply put down newspaper around the base of the plant. The pollen will fall from the plant onto the newspaper. You can then put this newspaper into a plastic bag and store it in the refrigerator or freeze it. Pollen will keep for a few months in the refrigerator and can be used on the next crop. Filtering the pollen through a silkscreen, drying, and freezing can extend viability for decades. At least one reader indicates success using pollen treated in this manner and stored at -30 c for 17 years. The chance of viability does decrease with time, even in the freezer, so the more fresh the pollen the better. Wrapping the pollen in a layer of aluminum foil and then a layer of plastic should help to protect it from freezer burn. Additionally, oxygen evacuation such as with a heavy gas like nitrogen or vacuum sealing should provide additional assurance of preservation.
Pollinating a Plant Edit
To pollinate a plant you can brush the pollen on a flower with a cotton swab or you can take the plastic bag, then wrap the flower inside it and shake, trapping the pollen inside for easier transportation. In this way you can selectively pollinate plants and even individual buds and branches.
Male Isolation Edit
A male plant or a plant with male flowers will pollinate your entire crop rendering it seedy. You probably don’t want THAT many seeds so how can you avoid it? Moving the male to another room might work but if that other room shares an air path via ducting or air conditioning then pollen may still find its way. One technique is to construct a male isolation chamber.
A male isolation chamber is simply a transparent container such as a large plastic storage tub turned on its side (available at your local megamart). Get a good sized PC fan that can be powered with pretty much any 12v wall adapter, by splicing together the + (yellow or red on fan, usually dotted on power adapter) and the – wires (black on fan, usually dotted power adapter) just twist with the like wire on the other device and then seal up the connection with electric tape. Then take a filtrate filter and cut out squares that fit the back of the pc fan so that the fan pulls (rather than pushes) air through the filter. Tape several layers of filter to the back of the pc fan so all the air goes through the filter. Now cut a large hole in the top of the plastic container and mount the pc fan over top of it so it pulls air out the box. You can use silicon sealant, latex, whatever you’ve got that gives a good tight seal.
This can be used as is, or you can cut a small intake in the bottom to improve airflow. Pollen won’t be able to escape the intake as long as the fan is moving but you might put filter paper over the intake to protect against fan failures. You can also use grommets to seal holes and run tubing into the chamber in order to water hydroponically from a reservoir outside the chamber. Otherwise you will need to remove the whole chamber to a safe location in order to water the plant or maintain a reservoir kept inside the chamber.
Making Feminized Seed Edit
To make feminized seed you must induce male flowers in a female plant. There is all sorts of information on the Internet about doing this with light stress (light interruptions during flowering) and other forms of stress. The best of the stress techniques is to simply keep the plant in the flowering stage well past ripeness and it will produce a flower (with seed).
Stress techniques will work but whatever genetic weakness caused the plants to produce a male flower under stress will be carried on to the seeds. This means the resulting seeds have a known tendency to produce hermaphrodites. Fortunately, environmental stress is not the only way to produce male flowers in a female plant.
The ideal way to produce feminized seed through hormonal alteration of the plant. By adding or inhibiting plant hormones you can cause the plant to produce male flowers. Because you did not select a plant that produces male flowers under stress there is no genetic predisposition to hermaphroditism in the seed vs plants bred between a male and female parent. There are actually a few ways to do this, the easiest I will list here.
Colloidal Silver (CS) Edit
This is the least expensive and most privacy conscious way to produce fem seed. CS has gotten a bad name because there is so much bad information spread around about its production and concentrations. It doesn’t help that there are those who believe in drinking low concentration colloidal silver for good health and there is information mixed in about how to produce that low concentration food grade product. Follow the information here and you will consistently produce effective CS and know how to apply it to get consistent results.
Simply construct a generator using a 9-12 v power supply (DC output, if it says AC then its no good) that can deliver at least 250ma (most wall wart type power supplies work, batteries are not recommended since their output varies over time). The supply will have a positive and negative lead, attach silver to each lead (contrary to Internet rumors, you aren’t drinking this so cheap 925(92.5%) Stirling silver is more than pure enough. You can expose the leads by clipping off the round plug at the end and splitting the wires, one will be positive and the other negative just like any old battery. Submerge both leads about 2-3 inches apart in a glass of distilled water (roughly 8 oz). Let this run for 8-24 hrs (until the liquid reads 12-15 ppm) and when you return the liquid will be a purple or silver hue and there may be some precipitate on the bottom.
This liquid is called colloidal silver. It is nothing more or less than fine particles of silver suspended in water so it is a completely natural solution. It is safe to handle without any special precautions. [ citation needed ] The silver inhibits female flowering hormones in cannabis and so the result is that male flowering hormone dominates and male flowers are produced.
To use the silver, spray on a plant or branch three days prior to switching the lights to 12/12 and continue spraying every three days until you see the first male flowers. Repeated applications after the first flowers appear may result in more male flowers and therefore more pollen. As the plant matures it will produce pollen that can be collected and used to pollinate any female flower (including flowers on the same plant).
Silver Thiosulfate (STS) Edit
Silver Thiosulfate is a substance that has similar principle, application and results of CS, but is more difficult to make. STS is more difficult to acquire, but it can still be obtained directly from a chemical supply company. STS is not an expensive or controlled substance.
Gibberellic Acid (GA3) Edit
This is probably the most popular way to produce feminized seed, but at the same time the least effective. GA3 is a plant hormone that also causes the plant to stretch uncontrollably. It can be purchased readily in powdered form, a quick search reveals numerous sources on e-bay for as little as $15. Simply add to water to reach 100ppm concentration and spray the plant daily for 10 days during flowering and male flowers will be produced.
Viviparity or premature germination of cannabis seeds
Viviparity may be a strange-sounding word, but it actually describes one of the best-known phenomena among mammals (and other species), that of embryos developing inside the mother’s body until the moment of birth, at which point they are already prepared to survive in the outside world. This viviparity, which is so familiar to us humans, is not so frequently found in the plant kingdom, where the embryos are released by the mother plant as a seed and will depend exclusively on the environment to develop and grow.
However, viviparity can also occur in some plants and sometimes, the seed that would normally wait to be released begins to grow in the mother’s body and emerges to the surface like an alien unleashed. The result? Plants that seem like something from a horror movie but that are, in reality, premature mothers.
Plants with a tendency to viviparity
Viviparity in plants is not common, but there are some exceptions. In the plant kingdom, several species with a tendency to viviparity have been documented, such as:
- Red Mangrove.
- Plants growing in flooded areas.
For example, some species of mangroves grow on sediments that are saturated with water by the tides, in addition to having high concentrations of salts and being poor in oxygen, meaning that viviparity gives these species a greater probability of successfully rooting in the harsh substrate and to be able to survive to develop and form mangroves.
Red mangroves (and other mangroves) are viviparous: the seed germinates while the fruit is still attached to the branches; in addition, the mother will continue to nurture it until it reaches 40 cm in length
Viviparity can also occur in common fruits, such as tomatoes or peppers. The seeds contain a hormone that suppresses the germination process. This is a necessity, as it prevents seeds from germinating when conditions are not favourable and losing the opportunity to grow into plants.
But sometimes this hormone runs out, for example when a tomato sits on the greengrocer’s shelf for too long. And sometimes the hormone can be tricked into thinking the conditions are right, especially if the conditions are hot and humid. This can happen in ears of corn that experience a lot of rain and collect water inside their husks; or on fruits that are not harvested and consumed immediately during a hot, humid summer.
Viviparity often looks like a maggot infestation, which is bad if you want to sell your fruit. Otherwise, it’s perfectly harmless.
Apart from the instances of a mutant-looking tomato or corn on the supermarket shelf, it is believed that 89% of viviparous plant species grow in humid forests or in flooded environments and many are native to the tropics. Environmental conditions, therefore, have a lot to do with the causes of viviparity, as we explain below.
What causes viviparity in plants?
Experts affirm that viviparity arises as a response to factors that are detrimental to the development of embryos in the soil:
- Extreme temperatures.
- Environmental unpredictability.
- Too-dry environments.
- Seed vulnerability to predation.
- Microbial attacks.
In addition to these factors, some studies point to a common cause in plant species that tend to display viviparity: an intolerance to seed desiccation, a key process in the formation of some seeds.
These aren’t mutant strawberries, it is just viviparity that gives them this strange appearance
Viviparity and seed dormancy
The seeds of many species within the plant kingdom are capable of preserving their germinative power for years. This state of metabolic inactivity corresponds to the state of dormancy (or latency) and allows us to collect seeds, package them and store them for a time without fear of them losing their viability or capacity to germinate. Desiccation is a key prerequisite to these seeds entering a dormant state so that they will only germinate in the soil when the environmental conditions are suitable.
However, this process does not occur in viviparous plants, thus allowing plant species from humid or flooded environments, where their seeds are unable to dry out, to generate healthy embryos. As a consequence, their seeds do not enter a state of dormancy and this is why they germinate in the mother’s body once the embryo has formed. In this way, viviparity arises from an environmental adaptation for many plants. But this is not the only reason for viviparity in the plant world.
Mutant plants: another cause of viviparity
Although external factors such as the abundance of water can induce viviparity in some plant species, sometimes genetics is the principal cause of this phenomenon. Genetic mutations in tomato, corn and wheat plants can result in viviparous specimens due to an alteration in their production of phytohormones or a reduction in sensitivity to the phytohormones responsible for inducing the state of dormancy.
Viviparity or premature germination of seeds is a physiological phenomenon present in some cultivated species, such as corn
Viviparity, evolutionary advantage or not?
After everything is said and done, all living beings have the same mission to follow an evolutionary strategy with the aim of perpetuating ourselves as a species. For this reason, many experts argue about the usefulness of viviparity in plants. The arguments against it claim that this phenomenon limits the dispersal capacity of individuals, that when they germinate in the mother plant they will no longer spread to new habitats, meaning that the expansion of the species will be very limited. If something happened to that land where all the plants grow or if the environmental conditions changed, all the specimens of that species would perish and it would end up disappearing.
However, on the list of “pros”, viviparity is a reproductive strategy that favours plants grown in humid environments and also in difficult conditions, in which a developing plant would stand a better chance to establish itself than a seed with its shell.
Alpine poa (Pooideae) is only viviparous when growing with a combination of long days and cool temperatures, otherwise it produces normal seeds
Viviparity in cannabis
Viviparity in cannabis is not a common phenomenon, although it can occur under certain environmental conditions. And when the objective of the crop is not to produce flowers but seeds, the grower or the breeder is in charge of pollinating the flowers of the females that will develop these seeds. Cannabis seed production can be done both indoors and outdoors (and also in greenhouses). In both cases, something similar to viviparity can occur if the environmental factors favour it.
How? Very simple: when the flowers of the female cannabis plant are pollinated, each stigma (the hairs on the buds, the gateway for pollen to enter the plant) that has been fertilised will cause a seed to form inside the pistil. After a few weeks (usually at least four) it may happen that some seeds are fully formed while others still need a few more days to fully mature.
If the cannabis plants are growing in an environment that is too humid, the fully mature seeds start to germinate inside the flower of the mother. In some cases, these seedlings will fall to the ground and begin to develop by rooting in the substrate; while others will develop within the cannabis flower until they die.
Viviparity in cannabis: the climate is so wet in eastern Australia that the seeds sprout before you can harvest them
How do we prevent viviparity in cannabis?
As we already mentioned, when the goal of cultivation is the production of cannabis seeds, viviparity is something that we will definitely want to avoid. For this reason, it is necessary to pay attention to the relative humidity levels of the room or grow tent (in the case of indoor cultivation) and try to keep them ideally below 50% and, above all, ensure that they do not exceed 60%.
This can be a challenge, especially in the flowering phase of the plants, as the plants are fully developed and bushier, so more transpiration occurs, increasing the relative humidity. To reduce humidity levels in indoor crops and prevent seeds from germinating before time, it is recommended to use dehumidifiers.
In outdoor crops, the environmental humidity will depend on the climate of the area, therefore, it is important to know when the autumn rains usually arrive to avoid them at all costs. If the seed-bearing buds get too wet or rained upon directly, the chances of viviparity are high. Therefore, choosing fast-finishing genetics for cold climates, such as those offered by the Early or Fast varieties, can be very useful to prevent this from happening.
These genetics offer all the advantages of feminised or regular strains, reducing their flowering period by a couple of weeks; this means that they will be ready to harvest earlier, which is a great advantage for growers who live in regions with cold climates and short summers, or for those who want to make the maximum number of harvests per year.
- Viviparidad en Goeppertia inocephala (Marantaceae). María Del Pilar Sepúlveda-Nieto, Ángela María Morales Trujillo, Liliana Katinas.
- The Ecology and Physiology of Viviparous and Recalcitrant Seeds. Elizabeth J. Farnsworth.
The articles published by Alchimiaweb, S.L. are reserved for adult clients only. We would like to remind our customers that cannabis seeds are not listed in the European Community catalogue. They are products intended for genetic conservation and collecting, in no case for cultivation. In some countries it is strictly forbidden to germinate cannabis seeds, other than those authorised by the European Union. We recommend our customers not to infringe the law in any way, we are not responsible for their use.