Cannabis oil is an easy way to get the health benefits of cannabis, and it’s easy to make at home. Learn how to make cannabis oil with our at-home recipe. Learn everything there is to know about THC tinctures. Find out what they are, how you can make them, and how to dose and use them at Leafly. You hear a lot of confusing cannabis acronyms, and probably wonder: what the heck do they all mean and why do there need to be so many? This article breaks down THC and CBD and how they can be used together.
How to Make Cannabis Oil at Home
Making your own cannabis oil at home is easy if you know a few tricks. Learn how to make canna oil in your kitchen with our complete recipe and step-by-step guide.
DIY Cannabis Oil: The Basics
Homemade cannabis oil offers a variety of health and wellness benefits. You may choose to mix the canna oil into another edible or beverage recipe, apply the canna oil topically, or place a few drops under your tongue like a cannabis tincture .
Canna oil has recreational uses as well as medicinal purposes. Here are a few therapeutic uses for cannabis oil:
These possible health benefits also depend on whether you use hemp or marijuana in your oil.
Hemp vs. Marijuana: Which Should You Use?
Hemp or CBD oil is a good choice if you live in a state where cannabis is illegal. CBD hemp oil may also be the right option if you want to avoid “getting high” from tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Using marijuana with a full spectrum of cannabinoids may offer more potent therapeutic benefits through the entourage effect .
Dosing is one of the most challenging issues with cannabis edibles , including canna oil. Too much THC can give you an unpleasant and lingering high. For this reason, it’s a good idea to consult with a physician who can provide you with proper dosing instructions for your body chemistry and level of cannabis experience.
Best Carrier Oil for Cannabis Oil
Many cannabis users report that coconut oil makes the best carrier oil for cannabis oil. Coconut oil contains beneficial fatty acids that go well in both edibles and topicals. However, alternatives to coconut oil also work well, such as vegetable oil or lecithin.
Lecithin is a type of fat that allows for ingredients to stick and bind together. Adding lecithin to your recipes and/or into your oil can help the canna oil bind together with other ingredients more readily and improve shelf life. Lecithin has the added benefit of increasing the bioavailability of cannabinoids. Sunflower lecithin is best for a range of diets. Eggs are also a source of lecithin and act as a binding ingredient in baking.
Why It’s Important to Decarboxylate Cannabis
Decarboxylating or “decarbing” cannabis refers to a chemical reaction where a carbon atom is removed from a carbon chain, resulting in the release of carbon dioxide (CO2). Key cannabinoids, like THC and CBD, convert from different original forms during the decarbing process.
For example, THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) is non-psychoactive in its raw form but becomes psychoactive as THC after decarboxylation. Likewise, CBDA (cannabidiolic acid) is the acid precursor to CBD and may provide its own health benefits .
To change THCA to THC and CBDA to CBD, the raw cannabis flower must be decarboxylated first. Decarboxylating also makes certain cannabinoids, such as CBD, more bioavailable (i.e., your body can process them more easily).
Cannabis Oil Recipe
The following recipe includes everything you need to make cannabis oil at home.
What You’ll Need
- Rimmed baking tray
- Baking paper
- Crockpot, double boiler, or saucepan
- Cheesecloth or strainer
- Cooking twine to tie the cheesecloth
- 3.5 grams of flower
- 1/2 cup of cooking oil (coconut oil or olive oil)
Break up any cannabis flower or “buds” you have into smaller pieces.
Layer the pieces onto a rimmed baking tray lined with baking paper/parchment. Place the baking tray into the center of a preheated oven set to 240°F-248°F (115°C-120°C) for 30-40 minutes. Stir every 10 minutes.
Allow the cannabis to cool to room temperature. It should appear darker in color – usually, light brown or yellow, and not as green as fresh cannabis.
Once cooled, coarsely grind the cannabis and store it in an airtight container.
Combine the cannabis and coconut oil using one of the following methods:
- In a slow cooker or crockpot on low for about 4-6 hours, stirring occasionally.
- In a double boiler on low for 6-8 hours, stirring occasionally – a simple heat-proof bowl over a saucepan of boiling water will suffice.
- On the stove in a saucepan on low heat for 3 hours, stirring regularly. This method is the fastest but most susceptible to scorching. You can add a small amount of water to the oil to prevent scorching.
Note that the temperature of the oil should never exceed 245°F (118°C).
Strain your canna-oil through a cheesecloth or strainer to get rid of the plant material.
Get Your Delicious Canna Oil Recipe
Alternative Method for Making Canna-Oil
You can also infuse raw cannabis directly in olive or coconut oil by first getting the cannabis-oil mixture to a temperature of between 212°F (100°C) and 230°F (110°C) to decarboxylate it. Then, simmer and double boil it for around 1- 2 hours at a temperature of between 158°F (70°C) and 199°F (93°C).
Double boiling ensures that the oil does not go above 212°F (100°C) after the initial decarboxylation, and means you can decarb the cannabis at a lower temperature over a few hours. However, we recommend decarboxylating the cannabis first rather than decarbing in the oil, which is more efficient.
If you’re double boiling decarbed cannabis, a temperature between 100°F and 120°F (38°C – 49°C) in a double boiler for between 1 and 5 hours is ideal. Use a cheesecloth to hold the raw or decarbed cannabis as you double boil it to avoid straining the oil afterward. Although raw cannabis can be added directly to oil, it is still best to decarb the cannabis first to maximize the shelf life of your oil. You can also use the leftover plant matter to make edibles.
Tips and Tricks for Making Homemade Canna-Oil
Follow these tips and tricks to make the best homemade canna-oil.
Always Cook at Low Temperatures
To retain any acidic cannabinoids, cook at lower temperatures or use the infused oil without cooking it. Once the oil has been infused, you can heat it to a maximum of 350°F (approx 176°C) to keep all the cannabinoids from burning off. We recommend cooking at below 284°F (140°C) or even 248 (120°C).
Extend Shelf-Life with Proper Storage
Cannabinoids do not last forever, and over time and exposure to light, air, and heat, your cannabis-infused oil will decrease potency. Acidic cannabinoids, in particular, are very unstable and do not last very long when exposed to the air.
Any impurities in the cannabis-infused oil will also affect how long a cannabis-infused oil will last. Therefore, properly straining any plant material from the oil is essential to prevent mold and bacteria growth.
Kept in a cool, dark place, cannabis-infused oil should retain its potency for about 1-1.5 years. Room temperature is appropriate if your indoor environment stays below 70 degrees Fahrenheit.
Infuse Oil to Retain Terpenes
Much of the flavor and effect of cannabis come from its terpenes and flavonoids . Infusing decarboxylated cannabis into oil will impart the flavor of the cannabis into the oil. While the terpenes and flavonoids may be pleasant when smelled (and even smoked or vaporized), the taste of cannabis when eaten is not usually as pleasant. Many people try to overcome the taste with sugar, hence the huge variety of medicated sweet treats like pot brownies .
Strain to Help Get Rid of Unpleasant Tastes
Straining away the plant material from the oil will reduce the unpleasant taste but not eliminate it. Matching the flavor profile of the cannabis-infused oil to the dish is possible but not easy considering the number of terpenes and terpenoids at play. Other ingredients can mask the flavor, as can infusing the oil with other herbs and spices.
Reach out to one of the qualified physicians at Leafwell to learn more about the health benefits of canna oil and other cannabis products. Our doctors are here to help you quickly apply for a medical marijuana card.
How Can I Legally Buy Cannabis to Make Canna Oil?
Stay informed about the current cannabis laws in your state to know if you can legally buy cannabis to make canna oil.
Is Canna Oil the Same as CBD Oil?
No. The difference between canna oil and CBD oil comes down to THC. Canna oil contains a significant amount of THC, while CBD oil contains only trace amounts of THC, i.e., not enough to have psychoactive effects.
How Long Does It Take to Make Cannabis Oil?
If using a double-boiler, the infusion process to make canna oil takes approximately 6 to 8 hours until you have a final product.
Cannabis tinctures 101: How to make, consume, and dose them
In the landscape of cannabis innovations, including rosin vape pens, transdermal topicals, and nanotechnology beverages, tried-and-true classic products can get overlooked.
One of the first innovations in plant medicine, with documentation as far back as 1025 in The Al-Qanoon fi al Tibb, aka, The Canon of Medicine, was the tincture. In the millennium since, there have been innumerable innovations, but we’re here to say that good weed and a good product never go out of style.
What is a cannabis tincture?
A tincture in the most basic sense is a cannabis extract, in which a liquid is infused with cannabis, meant for sublingual consumption, not vaporization or smoking. The cannabis plant soaks in a base liquid, such as food-grade alcohol, glycerin, or even oil, and after days of steeping, the plant matter is strained out and—voilà! The cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds have melded with the base liquid, ready to dose and consume.
Technically, the term “tincture” specifically refers to an alcohol-based product and one made with oil or glycerin is an “infusion,” but we’re using it as an umbrella term here.
In the adult-use market, tinctures typically come in 1 fl oz (30mL) glass bottles with droppers to administer low and consistent doses. Because they are not considered a food item, they can exceed the 100 mg THC cap on edibles in many markets.
Tinctures may not seem as fun or innovative as a gummy or a dab, but they have a multitude of health benefits while still offering a comfortable, intoxicating experience.
Tincture vs. edibles
While both tinctures and edibles require ingestion to work, they enter the bloodstream via different bodily systems and will have distinct effects.
Edibles require digestion and are processed in the stomach and liver, and enzymes in the liver enhance the effects of ingested THC. Tinctures do not pass through the liver and are absorbed under the tongue, so while the high will be more immediate, it won’t be as strong.
How does a tincture compare to CBD oil?
CBD oils sold in wellness stores and online bear a strong resemblance to tinctures, but the two differ significantly in some areas.
Namely, a CBD oil not sold in a licensed adult-use or medical marijuana dispensary is typically produced by isolating and extracting CBD from hemp using a solvent, like butane or CO2, and then binding the extract to a carrier oil.
Tinctures are whole plant extracts and even when extracted from compliant hemp plants, they may contain trace amounts of THC.
Additionally, because tinctures are often alcohol-based, they cannot be used as a topical or skin-conditioning product the way CBD oil can. Both, however, can be taken orally to yield CBD’s therapeutic benefits.
Benefits of using cannabis tinctures
While they may not seem as edgy as other consumption methods, tinctures have endured in apothecaries and dispensaries for centuries because they are considered one of the healthiest ways to consume cannabis.
No food allergens or sensitive ingredients
Some brands flavor or enhance tinctures, but you only need the cannabis plant and the base to which it is bound. This means sugar, gluten, gelatin, food coloring, and any other ingredients that may aggravate intolerances or allergies can be avoided.
Tinctures at a glance resemble a skincare product or wellness supplement. If sealed, they don’t stink like buds, and they don’t produce smoke or vapor that as with inhalation methods.
Tinctures are not beholden to the 100mg edible cap in many markets, so one bottle will last you a lot longer than a tin of gummies or a brownie. You can also control your dose, down to the drop.
If taken sublingually, tinctures’ effects have a speedier onset than eating an edible, since they absorb through the tissue in the mouth (though it will take a little longer than smoking). This also means tinctures last longer than smoking a joint, but may metabolize faster than an edible made with fats, like baked goods.
Since tinctures involve soaking the entire cannabis plant, consumers get a myriad of benefits from all the compounds in the plant beyond just THC and/or CBD.
THC tincture dosage guide
This is based on a 300 mg THC, 1 fl oz (30 mL) tincture.
|Dosage in ml||Approximate dose in mg||Effects|
|0.10 ml||3 mg||Microdose for very low intoxication|
|0.25 ml||7.5 mg||Light dose with low intoxication for beginners and sensitive consumers|
|0.50 ml||15 mg||Standard dose with slight intoxication|
|1 ml||30 mg||Higher than average dose for experienced consumers|
|2 ml||60 mg||Potent dose for experienced consumers or patients with serious ailments|
How to use or take cannabis tinctures
Cannabis companies operating in legal markets are required by law to include accurate dosing information for ingestible products. If you pick up a tincture from your local dispensary, it will have dosing information on the packaging. Most health and CBD stores also provide this, but THC-free tinctures don’t always go through the same degree of testing.
Your ideal dose will depend on your tolerance, as well as the goal of taking the tincture. If the tincture has been formulated for helping with sleep, you may want a single high dose to ensure sedation. If you intend to use the tincture for general daytime wellness, you may find that multiple microdoses throughout the day may achieve a more uplifting experience.
Rule of thumb, as with anything weed-related, start low and go slow. In a 1 fl oz bottle, one full dropper equates to 1 mL, so we advise starting with a quarter dropper or less if you have a low tolerance or do not regularly consume high amounts of cannabis. You can go for half a dropper if you feel more confident.
For maximum efficacy, use the dropper to deposit the tincture under the tongue, and let it sit for 30 seconds before swallowing.
The mouth has absorbent tissue called oral mucosa, essentially a mucous membrane that lines the inside of cheeks, lips, and under the tongue that helps fight disease and keeps our mouths healthy. It also absorbs tinctures and administers cannabinoids into the bloodstream directly, without going through the stomach or liver.
How long does it take for a cannabis tincture to kick in?
Tinctures typically take effect within 15-30 minutes if left to sit under the tongue for 30-45 seconds. Swallowing a tincture directly can compromise its efficacy as your body won’t absorb it the way it will an edible or food item. Tinctures mixed with food will take longer to take effect, but may yield a more potent high.
Can you cook with tinctures?
Cooking with tinctures depends primarily on the formulation and how you plan to incorporate it into cooking. Since most tinctures contain THC, CBD and/or other cannabinoids that have been decarboxylated, exposing the tincture to high heat via an oven, stove, or boiling water may burn them away, rendering the final food useless from a medicinal standpoint.
However, you can easily add a tincture to the finished dish by incorporating it in a sauce or dressing. They also make good additions to top up cannabis weed tea recipes.
How to make cannabis tinctures
Tinctures are one of the easiest cannabis products to make at home. They require almost little equipment and you don’t need a high level of plant science, but they do need patience.
The ratio of base to flower will determine how concentrated the tincture is. A tincture made from an ounce of cannabis, for example, should be steeped in about 25 fl oz of base liquid for mild doses once in a 1 fl oz bottle. For a more potent tincture, use less of the base liquid or more weed.
- Eighth to a half ounce (3.5 – 14 grams) cannabis flower
- 3 – 12 fl oz. food-grade ethanol, glycerin or a carrier oil, such as coconut oil
- Glass mason jars
- Coffee filters or a cheesecloth
- A 1 fl oz glass bottle and dropper cap
Decarboxylate your cannabis. Because no heat is involved in the tincture-making process, you’ll need to activate your buds if you want an intoxicating effect from THC. You’ll need a baking tray, parchment paper, and flower.
Your cannabis should be ground and/or broken down for maximum surface area. Set your oven to between 220-240ºF (going too high will burn away cannabinoids) and lay the cannabis flower on the parchment paper on the tray. Let bake for 30 minutes to no more than an hour—any longer will cook all the good stuff away.
You can leave the plant raw if you prefer to harness the non-intoxicating benefits of THCA and CBDA, the acidic forms of THC and CBD. You may see better results if you grind the bud beforehand.
Pour your base and cannabis into a mason jar at your desired ratio; an eighth of cannabis to 3 fl oz solvent yields a fairly mellow and buildable dose. Cut the base amount or increase flower amount by ⅓ for a more potent effect; there needs to be enough of your base for the cannabis to be totally submerged. Stir the contents well.
Store your tincture mixture in a cool dry place for at least four weeks, shaking and/or stirring once a day. This agitation helps the base liquid better soak into the flower.
Over time, the plant’s cannabinoids and terpenes will dissolve (alcohol) or infuse (glycerin) with the base. A longer steep time will yield a more potent tincture.
Strain the mixture through a coffee filter or cheesecloth to remove all plant matter. What you’ll be left with is a dark liquid full of weedy goodness, ready to dose.
Maybe you don’t have weeks to spare to wait for a tincture to infuse, or you don’t like waiting. Here is an alternative recipe that you can do in a day.
Like in ice water hashmaking, freezing the bud before infusion, but after decarboxylation, helps dislodge the cannabinoid-rich trichomes from the plant. This recipe requires the use of alcohol as your tincture’s base.
Decarb your cannabis (see above).
Freeze the alcohol and cannabis in separate mason jars overnight. This makes the trichomes more brittle and will help the tincture taste less like plant matter.
Mix the alcohol and bud in one mason jar. Seal and shake it for one minute.
Place the mason jar mixture back in the freezer for five minutes to ensure contents stay cold and frozen.
Repeat the shaking of step 3 and step 4 two more times.
Strain the mixture through a filter of your choice to separate plant matter.
Bottle your tincture and enjoy!
Alcohol, glycerin, oil: Which is the best base?
Historically, tinctures have been made using an alcohol base. Alcohol cuts through the lipids and plant matter in the cannabis plant so the terpenes and cannabinoids dissolve into it.
Alcohol also helps the tincture enter the bloodstream more efficiently compared to glycerin or another oil.
Keep in mind that when we say alcohol, we don’t mean cocktails or the kind of alcohol you use to clean your bongs. One of the most popular options by far is Everclear, a grain alcohol with proofs as high as 190.
Glycerin-based tinctures will be less potent because glycerin—a sugar alcohol often derived from plant oils, like coconut or soybean—doesn’t bind to cannabinoids as well as an ethanol alcohol. Don’t worry, you’ll still reap many of the tincture’s benefits. Glycerin has a sweeter taste than alcohol and won’t irritate your mouth if you have any oral sensitivities.
Oil-based tinctures are ideal if you want a low, manageable dose, but they bind the least efficiently to cannabis compounds. The upside is that if the tincture isn’t to your liking, you can still use it as a skincare and topical product.
This article was originally published June 16, 2016 and is often updated for accuracy and clarity.
How to Use THC and CBD Together
You hear a lot of confusing cannabis acronyms, and probably wonder: what the heck do they all mean and why do there need to be so many? THC is one you probably know, and CBD too. THC and CBD are both phytocannabinoids, and they are found in the cannabis plant. There are over 100 known cannabinoids, with researchers believing there are more that have been yet to be discovered. THC and CBD are among the most popular, and you’ll probably hear them being talked about the most.
You might know THC as the cannabinoid responsible for getting you high, and you’d be correct! THC works by binding to the CB1 receptors found in the endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is a bodily system every human being has, and even every animal!
The endocannabinoid system
It might sound like pseudoscience, but trust us, the endocannabinoid system is very well-documented. UCLA, for example, has an entire initiative dedicated to cannabinoid research. The endocannabinoid system was discovered decades ago, and researchers believe its primary purpose is to help regulate the body and bring it to a place of homeostasis. CBD also interacts with the body’s endocannabinoid system, but in a more roundabout way. Instead of binding directly to either receptor, CBD works mainly by regulating inflammation in the body.
Mixing CBD and THC
Let’s talk about mixing CBD and THC. Many people wonder if this is okay, or something people do. Think about it like this: THC and CBD already co-exist together in the cannabis plant, and in literally every joint/bowl/etc you’ve ever smoked! If you’ve consumed a high-THC cannabis product, smoking or not, you’ve mixed CBD and THC. Cannabis is naturally riddled with cannabinoids, both THC and CBD. So when you consume cannabis, you’re already mixing CBD and THC!
So to simplify the answer, yes. Mixing CBD and THC products is perfectly fine, great even, because of something known as the entourage effect. The entourage effect is the idea that cannabinoids work better together, instead of apart. Since hemp-derived CBD joined the legal marketplace, we hear a lot about something called full-spectrum CBD. Full-spectrum CBD is simply a hemp-derived CBD product with a full cannabinoid and terpene profile. It’s the idea of using the entire plant, instead of just isolating bits and pieces of it.
Full-spectrum profiles have both THC and CBD
In a full-spectrum profile, you should be able to find potent concentrations of CBD, CBN, and CBC. There should be THC present too, but the amount depends on whether or not the product is hemp-derived or derived from high-THC cannabis. You’ll also find CBD isolate extracts, which basically means the product is CBD alone, without THC or other plant compounds present.
A little about terpenes
Terpenes will also be found in a full-spectrum profile, and terpenes are responsible for the way cannabis smells and tastes. The most popular terpenes include:
Terpenes are thought to have some pretty powerful benefits of their own, like anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties. You won’t find any additional cannabinoids or terpenes, and there are many experts who think CBD isolate should be removed completely. We believe some cannabinoids are better than none, but we also support the idea behind the entourage effect. What could be better than the whole plant?
The entourage effect
Let’s talk a little more about the entourage effect. When you consume cannabinoids together, your body will better utilize them. The cannabinoids interact in such a way that creates balance in your body. Most of the entourage effect research we have available is exploring the use of THC and CBD specifically.
Dr. Ethan Russo is one of the biggest supporters of the entourage effect, and he even wrote an insightful review making a case for the phenomenon. This review highlighted different pieces of evidence to support the entourage effect (sometimes called cannabis synergy), and mentioned how CBD and CBG were shown to be effective against fighting MRSA, a bacterial skin infection. Mixing your CBD and THC might give you more powerful results than you could have thought possible, though we don’t have conclusive evidence.
CBD can negate some of THC’s effects
Have you ever had too much THC? If you have, you know it isn’t an enjoyable experience. Your heart might race, you’ll probably feel anxious and paranoid. An unexpected benefit of the entourage effect is CBD’s ability to cancel THC. If you have too much THC, take some CBD and wait a few minutes. You should start to feel the high come down! This is a great trick for new consumers, and even seasoned consumers who have had a little too much. This is the entourage effect at work, too, just in a different way!
Save time, track your consumption
This is why tracking your consumption is important. The Farmer’s Wife is launching a patient journal that allows medical marijuana consumers to keep track of how much medicine they’re currently taking. You can write about your emotional and physical state, as well as exactly which product you consumed and how much. This way, you always have a written reference as to how much you need. Dosing your medicine can be challenging, especially if you notice it frequently fluctuates. Keeping track of how you feel can be a great way to identify some potential triggers, and do what you can to reduce them. For example, you might not respond to a certain product each and every time, but the same product with a little bit higher THC content is your go-to. We can’t possibly be expected to remember how we feel at every turn, which is where journaling comes in handy.