B oucque , C h . V., C ottyn , B.G. & B uysse , F.X. 1969. Production intensive de viande bovine à base de pellets de pulpes séchées d’agrumes et de pellets de pulpes séchées de betteraves sucrières. Revue Agric., 11–12: 1553–1570.
When oranges or grapefruit are processed for juice or sections, 45 to 60 percent of their weight remains in the form of peel, rag and seeds (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1962). This waste is palatable to cattle and mature cows will, when they are accustomed to the feed, consume about 10 kg per day. Because of the high water content and the perishable nature of the waste, economically it can only be used close to the processing plant. The feed is rather difficult to handle, will ferment and sour quickly, and can be a fly-breeding nuisance if allowed to spoil. The large amounts which are available during the harvesting season can be ensiled for year-round feeding, but as citrus pulp is rather moist the silage loses up to 40 or 50 percent of its fresh weight during fermentation (Volcani, 1956). It is more advantageous to mix the fresh pulp with partially dried grass or with legumes which cannot be successfully ensiled on their own. The liquid lost from the pulp will then be absorbed by the green fodder. The silage has a pleasant odour and is readily eaten by cattle. Citrus pulp silage has a much higher weight per volume than that of grass or maize silage and therefore silos in which it is to be placed should be more strongly reinforced. This problem does not apply to trench silos.
Citrus seeds are sometimes collected separately at the canning plants and subjected to an oil extraction process. The resulting oil cake is usually called citrus seed meal and compares favourably with many sources of vegetable protein. However, it contains limonin, a factor toxic to pigs and especially to poultry. Citrus seed meal is therefore unsuitable for these animals because at 5 percent inclusion it will reduce growth and at 20 percent it will cause mortality in growing chickens (Driggers et al., 1951). It is acceptable to ruminants and comparable to cottonseed oil cake with the same percentage of crude protein. There is thus no restriction on its inclusion in diets for ruminants.
H endrickson , R. & K esterton , J ames W. 1964. Citrus molasses. Gainesville, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. Technical Bulletin 677. 27 p.
The major disadvantages of this feed — bulkiness, its varied particle size and its characteristic of “bridging over” discharge outlets of storage bins — can be overcome by pelleting. The process used at present for pressing feeds into pellets requires a high consumption of power and has a low plant capacity, factors which tend to make pellets more expensive than other forms of feed. Only citrus pulp intended for the rapidly growing export market is now pelleted. A new method that takes advantage of the fact that wet citrus pulp approaches a semiplastic state under pressure has been developed (Shoemyen, 1969): the pulp (not treated with lime) is mixed with molasses and extruded under low pressure in a continous process.
Citrus pulp can be easily ammoniated. The simplest method is to load the waste into a long polyethylene sleeve and let ammonia gas from a “bomb” (ammonia under compression in a steel cylinder) into one end. The progress of the ammonia is easily followed as it turns the pulp brown and heats it. When the ammonia reaches the other (open) end of the sleeve the gas is turned off and the excess ammonia is aired off from the pulp before it is fed to cattle. The added nitrogen is insoluble in water and is stably bound to the organic matter, apparently combining with the pectin. The crude protein digestibility of ammoniated citrus pulp is about 60 percent (Volcani and Roderig, 1953).
Dried citrus pulp that has been pressed before drying is somewhat lower in nitrogen-free extract. Only the contents of ash, fibre and water are consistent, while protein, fat and nitrogen-free extract vary according to season, the proportions of oranges and grapefruit used, and also the quantity of seeds in the fruits.
V olcani , R. 1956. A survey of the use of citrus fruit and waste for feeding dairy cattle in Israel. Ktavim, 6: 135–147.
Mandarin oranges are native to the Philippines and southeastern Asia and have gradually developed for commercial cultivation through Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi with some lesser groves in Texas, Georgia, and California. While the fruit of the mandarin is tender and easily damaged in transit and susceptible to cold, the tree is more tolerant of drought and cold temps than the sweet orange.
Suitable in USDA zones 9-11, mandarins can be grown either from seed or purchased rootstock. Seeds should be started indoors and transplanted once germinated. They can be grown into a small tree either in another pot or directly in the garden in the hardiness zones above. Make sure when planting a mandarin orange tree that you choose a site with full sun exposure.
If you celebrate the Christmas holiday, you may have found a small, orange fruit in the toe of your stocking left there by Santa Claus. Otherwise, you may be familiar with this citrus culturally or simply because you were attracted to the trade name ‘Cutie’ at the supermarket. What are we talking about? Mandarin oranges. So what are mandarin oranges and what is the difference between Clementines and mandarin oranges?
Planting a Mandarin Orange Tree
Also referred to as “kid-glove” oranges, mandarin orange info tells us that the scientific name is Citrus reticulata and they are members of a distinct species with thin, loose peels. They can be the same size as a sweet orange or much smaller dependent upon the variety and hang from a thorned tree attaining heights of up to 25 feet (7.5 m.). The fruit looks sort of like a small, slightly squashed orange with a vibrant, orange to red-orange peel enclosing the sectioned, juicy fruit.
Popular in the Philippines, throughout Central and South America, and commonly grown in Japan, southern China, India, and the East Indies, the name “tangerine” may apply to the entire group of Citrus reticulata; however this is usually in reference to those with red-orange skin. Mandarins include cultivars Clementine, Satsuma, and other cultivars.
What are Mandarin Oranges?
Additionally, growing mandarin oranges consist of three types: mandarin, citron, and pummel. And what we often categorize as mandarins are actually ancient hybrids (sweet oranges, sour oranges, and grapefruits).
Fertilize the tree with citrus fertilizer around the drip line in early spring, summer, or fall according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Keep the area at least three feet (91 cm.) around the tree weed and grass free and devoid of mulch.